Structure[ edit ] The hard palate is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone.
Clefting results when there is not enough tissue in the mouth or lip area, and the tissue that is available does not join together properly.
A cleft lip is a physical split or separation of the two sides of the upper lip and appears as a narrow opening or A study of cleft lip and palate in the skin of the upper lip. A cleft palate is a split or opening in the roof of the mouth. Cleft lip and cleft palate can occur on one or both sides of the mouth.
Because the lip and the palate develop separately, it is possible to have a cleft lip without a cleft palate, a cleft palate without a cleft lip, or both together. Cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, affects one in babies annually, and is the fourth most common birth defect in the U.
Clefts occur more often in children of Asian, Latino, or Native American descent. Compared with girls, twice as many boys have a cleft lip, both with and without a cleft palate. However, compared with boys, twice as many girls have cleft palate without a cleft lip.
In most cases, the cause of cleft lip and cleft palate is unknown. These conditions cannot be prevented. Most scientists believe clefts are due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There appears to be a greater chance of clefting in a newborn if a sibling, parent, or relative has had the problem.
Another potential cause may be related to a medication a mother may have taken during her pregnancy. Some drugs may cause cleft lip and cleft palate. Cleft lip and cleft palate may also occur as a result of exposure to viruses or chemicals while the fetus is developing in the womb.
In other situations, cleft lip and cleft palate may be part of another medical condition. Because clefting causes very obvious physical changes, a cleft lip or cleft palate is easy to diagnose.
Prenatal ultrasound can sometimes determine if a cleft exists in an unborn child. Sometimes diagnostic testing may be conducted to determine or rule out the presence of other abnormalities.
With a separation or opening in the palate, food and liquids can pass from the mouth back through the nose. Fortunately, specially designed baby bottles and nipples that help keep fluids flowing downward toward the stomach are available. Children with a cleft palate may need to wear a man-made palate to help them eat properly and ensure that they are receiving adequate nutrition until surgical treatment is provided.
Children with cleft palate are at increased risk of ear infections since they are more prone to fluid build-up in the middle ear. If left untreated, ear infections can cause hearing loss. To prevent this from happening, children with cleft palate usually need special tubes placed in the eardrums to aid fluid drainage, and their hearing needs to be checked once a year.
Children with cleft lip or cleft palate may also have trouble speaking. Not all children have these problems and surgery may fix these problems entirely for some. For others, a special doctor, called speech pathologist, will work with the child to resolve speech difficulties.
Children with clefts are more prone to a larger than average number of cavities and often have missing, extra, malformed, or displaced teeth requiring dental and orthodontic treatments. In addition, children with cleft palate often have an alveolar ridge defect.
The alveolus is the bony upper gum that contains teeth. A defect in the alveolus can 1 displace, tip, or rotate permanent teeth2 prevent permanent teeth from appearing, and 3 prevent the alveolar ridge from forming.
These problems can usually be repaired through oral surgery. Due to the number of oral health and medical problems associated with a cleft lip or cleft palate, a team of doctors and other specialists is usually involved in the care of these children.
Members of a cleft lip and palate team typically include: Treatment usually begins in infancy and often continues through early adulthood. A cleft lip may require one or two surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed.
The initial surgery is usually performed by the time a baby is 3 months old. Repair of a cleft palate often requires multiple surgeries over the course of 18 years.
The first surgery to repair the palate usually occurs when the baby is between 6 and 12 months old. The initial surgery creates a functional palate, reduces the chances that fluid will develop in the middle ears, and aids in the proper development of the teeth and facial bones.
Children with a cleft palate may also need a bone graft when they are about 8 years old to fill in the upper gum line so that it can support permanent teeth and stabilize the upper jaw.Welcome to South Bedford Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Your Oral Surgery Specialists in Mt.
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Jason Baker, DMD, and Dr. Benn Lieberman, DMD. Their office in northern Westchester allows them to bring a full scope of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery practice to you and . The features of EEC syndrome are ectrodactyly of hands and feet, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate.
Maas et al. () found great variability in the clinical manifestations of EEC in affected members of a large Dutch kindred. Specific genitourinary anomalies were found. Research studies are carried out all over the world and the research teams publish the results of these studies in scientific journals.
Over the last few years the number of research studies relating to cleft lip and palate has increased. The chart below shows how many studies were published each year from to The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate made up of two bones of the facial skeleton, located in the roof of the attheheels.com bones are the palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of palatine attheheels.com hard palate spans the alveolar arch formed by the alveolar process that holds the upper teeth (when these are developed).
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