While these theories focus on the specific role that humor plays for people in situations such as dealing with misfortune, making sense of rule violations, and bonding with others, we propose that underlying each of these theories are the physiological benefits of laughter. We draw on findings from empirical studies on laughter to demonstrate that these physiological benefits occur regardless of the theory that is used to explain the humor function. Findings from these studies have important implications for nurse practitioners working in hospice settings, long-term care facilities, nursing homes, and hospitals.
Philosophers are concerned with what is important in life, so two things are surprising about what they have said about humor. The first is how little they have said. From ancient times to the 20th century, the most that any notable philosopher wrote about laughter or humor was an essay, and only a few lesser-known thinkers such as Frances Hutcheson and James Beattie wrote that much.
The word humor was not used in its current sense of funniness until the 18th century, we should note, and so traditional discussions were about laughter or comedy.
The most that major philosophers like Plato, Hobbes, and Kant wrote about laughter or humor was a few paragraphs within a discussion of another topic. The second surprising thing is how negative most philosophers have Academic hypthesis of humor in their assessments of humor.
From ancient Greece until the 20th century, the vast majority of philosophical comments on laughter and humor focused on scornful or mocking laughter, or on laughter that overpowers people, rather than on comedy, wit, or joking.
Plato, the most influential critic of laughter, treated it as an emotion that overrides rational self-control. In Philebus 48—50he analyzes the enjoyment of comedy as a form of scorn. In laughing at them, we take delight in something evil—their self-ignorance—and that malice is morally objectionable.
Because of these objections to laughter and humor, Plato says that in the ideal state, comedy should be tightly controlled. No free person, whether woman or man, shall be found taking lessons in them. Greek thinkers after Plato had similarly negative comments about laughter and humor.
Though Aristotle considered wit a valuable part of conversation Nicomachean Ethics 4, 8he agreed with Plato that laughter expresses scorn. Wit, he says in the Rhetoric 2, 12is educated insolence. These objections to laughter and humor influenced early Christian thinkers, and through them later European culture.
They were reinforced by negative representations of laughter and humor in the Bible, the vast majority of which are linked to hostility. The only way God is described as laughing in the Bible is with hostility: The kings of the earth stand ready, and the rulers conspire together against the Lord and his anointed king….
The Lord who sits enthroned in heaven laughs them to scorn; then he rebukes them in anger, he threatens them in his wrath Psalm 2: In the Bible, mockery is so offensive that it may deserve death, as when a group of children laugh at the prophet Elisha for his baldness: Sometimes what they criticized was laughter in which the person loses self-control.
Other times they linked laughter with idleness, irresponsibility, lust, or anger. John Chrysostom, for example, warned that Laughter often gives birth to foul discourse, and foul discourse to actions still more foul. Often from words and laughter proceed railing and insult; and from railing and insult, blows and wounds; and from blows and wounds, slaughter and murder.
If, then, you would take good counsel for yourself, avoid not merely foul words and foul deeds, or blows and wounds and murders, but unseasonable laughter itself in Schaff Not surprisingly, the Christian institution that most emphasized self-control—the monastery—was harsh in condemning laughter.
One of the earliest monastic orders, of Pachom of Egypt, forbade joking Adkin— The Rule of St. The monastery of St. Columbanus Hibernus had these punishments: The Christian European rejection of laughter and humor continued through the Middle Ages, and whatever the Reformers reformed, it did not include the traditional assessment of humor.
Among the strongest condemnations came from the Puritans, who wrote tracts against laughter and comedy. One by William Prynne encouraged Christians to live sober, serious lives.
Although various classical theories of humor and laughter may be found, in contemporary academic literature, three theories of humor appear repeatedly: relief theory, superiority theory, and incongruity theory. Among current humor researchers, there is no consensus about which of these three theories of humor is most viable. Motivated by the literary conceit of the laugh of triumph, Hobbes's expression the superiority theory looks like more of a theory of laughter than a theory of humor. Charles Baudelaire () offers an interesting variation on Hobbes' superiority theory, mixing it with mortal inferiority. Apr 20, · Nicely written and documented, Orac. Thanks for keeping on top of things, and for deconstructing the antivaxers’ failed attempts to .
That makes us alert to signs that we are winning or losing. The former make us feel good and the latter bad.
If our perception of some sign that we are superior comes over us quickly, our good feelings are likely to issue in laughter. In Part I, ch.
And it is incident most to them, that are conscious of the fewest abilities in themselves; who are forced to keep themselves in their own favor by observing the imperfections of other men. And therefore much laughter at the defects of others, is a sign of pusillanimity. For of great minds, one of the proper works is, to help and free others from scorn; and to compare themselves only with the most able.These findings and rate of energy expenditure were analyzed at indicate that the relief theory of humor has some 1-minute intervals throughout the intervention.
medical basis; humor can indeed aid in the reduction Findings indicated statistically significant (P. A third theory that sheds lights on instructor humor is disparagement or superiority theory. This theory studies humor at social and behavioral level and is based on the premise that people laugh at others’ shortcomings, failings.
Motivated by the literary conceit of the laugh of triumph, Hobbes's expression the superiority theory looks like more of a theory of laughter than a theory of humor. Charles Baudelaire () offers an interesting variation on Hobbes' superiority theory, mixing it with mortal inferiority.
Apr 20, · Nicely written and documented, Orac. Thanks for keeping on top of things, and for deconstructing the antivaxers’ failed attempts to . Particular types of humor intended to generate an incongruity mechanism response include wordplay (e.g., puns), “pure” incongruity, absurdity, and sight gags.
3. Academic Freedom: being free to work any sixty hours of the week one likes. Weekend: those days on which one need neither dress well nor wash one's hair before coming to work.
Faculty Lounge: one's office floor at am. Violence: what one would like to do to at least some full professors.