A Brief History of Justice Published:
He is chiefly known, however, for his book A Theory of Justice, an effort to define social justice. The work has greatly influenced modern political thought.
Rawls was dissatisfied with the traditional philosophical arguments about what makes a social institution just and about what justifies political or social actions and policies.
The utilitarian argument holds that societies should pursue the greatest good for the greatest number. This argument has a number of problems, including, especially, that it seems to be consistent with the idea of the tyranny of majorities over minorities.
The intuitionist argument holds that humans intuit what is right or wrong by some innate moral sense. Rawls attempts to establish a reasoned account of social justice through the social contract approach. This approach holds that a society is in some sense an agreement among all those within that society.
If a society were an agreement, Rawls asks, what kind of arrangement would everyone agree to? He states that the contract is a purely hypothetical one: He does not argue that people had existed outside the social state or had made agreements to establish a particular type of society.
Rawls begins his work with the idea of justice as fairness. He identifies the basic structure of society as the primary subject of justice and identifies justice as the first virtue of social institutions.
He considers justice a matter of the organization and internal divisions of a society. The main idea of a theory of justice asks, What kind of organization of society would rational persons choose if they were in an initial position of independence and equality and were setting up a system of cooperation?
This is what Rawls sees as a hypothetical original position: After considering the main characteristics of justice as fairness and the theoretical superiority of this approach to utilitarianism, intuitionism, or other perspectives, Rawls looks at the principles of justice.
He identifies two principles: From these two principles Rawls derives an egalitarian conception of justice that would allow the inequality of conditions implied by equality of opportunity but would also give more attention to those born with fewer assets and into less favorable social positions.
Rawls concludes the first part of his book by looking at the idea of the original position outside society. This hypothetical original position can be approximated by using the thought experiment of the veil of ignorance. If no one could know what place he or she would occupy in the society being formed, what arrangement of the society would a rational person choose?
Rawls maintains that the choice would be for a social structure that would best benefit the unknowing chooser if she or he happened to end up in the least desirable position. In the second part of the work, Rawls considers the implications of his view of justice for social institutions.
He discusses in detail equal liberty, economic distribution, and duties and obligations as well as the main characteristics of each that would make up a just society.
He does not, however, identify any particular type of social or political system that would be consistent with his theory. He deals only with the demands that his version of justice places on institutions.
In the third and final section, Rawls deals with ends or ultimate goals of thinking about social justice.The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to criminal justice: Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.
Western Theories of Justice. Three conditions must be met in order that the concept of justice should apply: (a) we must be dealing with external interpersonal behaviors; (b) it must relate to willed action and not merely to wishes, desires, and needs; and (c) the consequences intended are not morally relevant.
This is a very good. This book presents a historical overview of thinking about justice in the West from ancient times to the present.
Justice in the ancient world is explained as grounded in the concept of reciprocity, and Johnston argues that the history of justice in the West can be understood as a history of changes.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to criminal justice: Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.
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Restorative Justice in School: An Overview. February 18, Jennifer Gonzalez. facebook and the concept of restorative justice just wasn’t letting me package and deliver it in a tidy little bundle. So rather than try to do that, I’m going to just start with an overview.
This will not be a comprehensive study of restorative practices.