This is the text of my keynote speech at the 34th Chaos Communication Congress in Leipzig, December
Development[ edit ] By the age of two years, children normally begin to display the fundamental behaviors of empathy by having an emotional response that corresponds with another person's emotional state.
Also during the second year, toddlers will play games of falsehood or "pretend" in an effort to fool others, and this requires that the child know what others believe before he or she can manipulate those beliefs.
According to researchers at the University of Chicago who used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRIchildren between the ages of 7 and 12 years appear to be naturally inclined to feel empathy for others in pain.
Their findings  are consistent with previous fMRI studies of pain empathy with adults. The research also found additional aspects Autism spectrum disorder term paper essay the brain were activated when youngsters saw another person intentionally hurt by another individual, including regions involved in moral reasoning.
Individuals with autism often find using a theory of mind very difficult e. Empathetic maturity is a cognitive structural theory developed at the Yale University School of Nursing and addresses how adults conceive or understand the personhood of patients.
The theory, first applied to nurses and since applied to other professions, postulates three levels that have the properties of cognitive structures.
The third and highest level is held to be a meta-ethical theory of the moral structure of care. Those adults operating with level-III understanding synthesize systems of justice and care-based ethics. Recent years have seen increased movement toward the idea that empathy occurs from motor neuron imitation.
But, how do we account for individual differences in empathy? It cannot be said that empathy is a single unipolar construct but rather a set of constructs. In essence, not every individual responds equally and uniformly the same to various circumstances.
The Empathic Concern scale assesses "other-oriented" feelings of sympathy and concern and the Personal Distress scale measures "self-oriented" feelings of personal anxiety and unease. The combination of these scales helps reveal those that might not be classified as empathetic and expands the narrow definition of empathy.
Using this approach we can enlarge the basis of what it means to possess empathetic qualities and create a multi-faceted definition. For instance, functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI has been employed to investigate the functional anatomy of empathy.
In their paper, they argue that attended perception of the object's state automatically activates neural representations, and that this activation automatically primes or generates the associated autonomic and somatic responses idea of perception-action-coupling unless inhibited. This mechanism is similar to the common coding theory between perception and action.
Another recent study provides evidence of separate neural pathways activating reciprocal suppression in different regions of the brain associated with the performance of "social" and "mechanical" tasks. It is possible to see this form of anger as a pro-social emotion.
Empathic anger can be divided into two sub-categories: Empathic concern did not, however, significantly predict anger response, and higher personal distress was associated with increased anger. This feeling can be transformed into empathic anger, feelings of injustice, or guilt.
These emotions can be perceived as pro-social, and some say they can be seen as motives for moral behavior. It was found that offenders that had been raised in an environment where they were shown a lack of empathy and had endured the same type of abuse, felt less affective empathy for their victims.
Several different factors are proposed to be at play. A study of high-functioning adults with autistic spectrum disorders found an increased prevalence of alexithymia a personality construct characterized by the inability to recognize and articulate emotional arousal in oneself or others.
Recently, a study has shown that high-functioning autistic adults appear to have a range of responses to music similar to that of neurotypical individuals, including the deliberate use of music for mood management.
Clinical treatment of alexithymia could involve using a simple associative learning process between musically induced emotions and their cognitive correlates.
Activity in this area was inversely related to symptom severity in the social domain, suggesting that a dysfunctional mirror neuron system may underlie social and communication deficits observed in autism, including impaired theory of mind and cognitive empathy.
Theory of mind is the ability to understand the perspectives of others. Five different "brain types" can be observed among the population based on the scores, which should correlate with differences at the neural level.
In the E-S theory, autism and Asperger syndrome are associated with below-average empathy and average or above-average systemizing. The E-S theory has been extended into the Extreme Male Brain theory, which suggests that people with an autism spectrum condition are more likely to have an "Extreme Type S" brain type, corresponding with above-average systemizing but challenged empathy.
A study showed that some aspects of autistic neuroanatomy seem to be extremes of typical male neuroanatomy, which may be influenced by elevated levels of fetal testosterone rather than gender itself.
Nor could it explain the similar effect on diagnosed autism for some European migrants America in the s that was reviewed in the s as a shortage of vitamin D was never a problem for these light-skinned immigrants to America.
The decrease of diagnosed autism with the number of years the parents had lived in their new country also cannot be explained by the theory that the cause is genetic no matter if it is said to be caused by actual ethnic differences in autism gene prevalence or a selective migration of individuals predisposed for autism since such genes, if present, would not go away over time.Since Rational Recovery entered public consciousness, I have had the privilege of appearing on a good number – actually hundreds – of TV and radio attheheels.com were tiresome affairs hosted by steppers, others were single-station shows, sometimes at late hours when most listeners were in dreamland, but some talkshows were actually stimulating interviews with hosts who could understand.
About this List. These entries are from e-mail, online book lists, and the bibliographies included in books and papers. This will always be a work in progress in that I am constantly adding to it and correcting it. A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary widely between specific disorders. In broad terms, autism spectrum disorders is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called ASD.
It is called autism spectrum disorder because the symptoms and levels of impairment for these disorders ranges widely in each individual with an ASD.
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], ). We will write a custom essay sample on Thesis paper on autism specifically for you for only $16 and location of the program?Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder:Some adults with autism are able to work successfully in normal jobs.
At attheheels.com you will find a wide variety of top-notch essay and term paper samples on any . AUSTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER 2 Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study of Amy According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention there is a rise in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses.
It is very crucial that clinicians are familiar with strategies to improve client’s lives and increase their occupational performance.