Oceans are the largest water bodies on the planet Earth. Ocean pollutionalso known as marine pollution, is the spreading of harmful substances such as oil, plastic, industrial and agricultural waste and chemical particles into the ocean. Mining for materials such as copper and gold is a major source of contamination in the ocean.
There are several causes of water pollution in India. The main causes are briefly described as under: Rapid urbanisation in India during the recent decades has given rise to a number of environmental problems such as water supply, wastewater generation and its collection, treatment and disposal.
Many towns and cities which came up on the banks of rivers have not given a proper thought to problem of wastewater, severage, etc. In urban areas, water is tapped for domestic and industrial use from rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wells, etc.
In most cases, this wastewater is let out untreated and causes large scale pollution of the surface water.
A part of it percolates into the ground and contaminates the ground water. Class I cities cities with population above one lakh generate as much as 16, Mid Million litres per day of wastewater.
The Ganga river basin contributes about one-third of the total wastewater of India. As per the latest estimate out of 23 thousand MId of wastewater generated, only six thousand Mid i.
The level of treatment available in cities with existing treatment plant varies from 2. Basin wise wastewater generation and treatment in class I and class II cities are given in Table 9.
Municipal water treatment facilities in India, at present, do not remove traces of heavy metals. Given the fact that heavily polluted rivers are the major sources of municipal water for most towns and cities along their courses it is believed that every consumer has been, over the years, exposed to unknown quantities of pollutants in water they have consumed.
To add to this, Indian towns and cities have grown in an unplanned manner due to rapid population growth. Facilities for running water have been provided in many towns and even in some villages during the last couples of decades.
This has resulted in the use of flush-latrines and much larger use of water in home for bathing, washing of clothes, utensils etc. Use of soaps and detergents and amounts of various food materials going to sink have also grown considerably with improved life standards.
But sewerage has lagged far behind water supply. All this results in large quantity of wastewater uncollected. Situation in big cities is worsened by migration of poor people from the surrounding rural areas.
These people migrate to the cities in search of livelihood. Even where there sewers exist, they often leak or overflow, releasing their contents to storm-water or other surface drains or percolate in to the soil to reach ground water. Very often uncollected and untreated sewerage water reaches the streams thereby polluting their water.
Most Indian rivers and other sources of fresh water are polluted by industrial wastes or effluents. All these industrial wastes are toxic to life forms that consume this water. The total wastewater generated from all major industrial sources is 83, MId which includes 66, Mid of cooling water generated from thermal power plants.
Out of remaining 16, mid of wastewater, thermal power plants generate another 7, Mid as boiler blow down water and overflow from ash ponds. Engineering industries comprise the second largest generator of wastewater in terms of volume. Under this category the major polluting industries are electroplating units.
The other significant contributors of wastewater are paper mills, steel plants, textile and sugar industries.
The major contributors of pollution in terms of organic load are distilleries followed by paper mills. Both large scale industries and small scale industries contribute their share of water pollution.
While many large scale industries claim to have installed costly treatment and disposal equipments, these are often not in proper working order.Air Pollution is the most prominent and dangerous form of pollution.
It occurs due to many reasons. It occurs due to many reasons. Excessive burning of fuel which is a necessity of our daily lives for cooking, driving and other industrial activities; releases a huge amount of chemical substances in the air everyday; these pollute the air. It is estimated that 65 percent of the pollution in Pasig River comes from household waste.
In a third world country where many of the homes do not have indoor plumbing, the river is a place to dump some of the tons of wastewater produced daily by Metro Manila’s citizens. American Rivers works for federal and state right-to-know policies that require citizens to be informed of sewage contamination in their waterways.
Not only will such programs keep people healthy by avoiding raw sewage, but it will also galvanize further support for solutions to reduce sewage pollution. Causes and Effects of Water Pollution. factories and commercial buildings Sewage that is treated in water treatment plants is often disposed into the sea.
The Ganges River in India is one the most polluted rivers in the world with sewage, trash, food, and animal remains.
Point-source pollution is the easiest type of river pollution to correct, as it can be traced to a single source. An industrial operation may accidentally discharge untreated pollutants into a river, or a flood at a wastewater treatment plant may cause .
The sea pollution is caused by oil spill, ship pollution and sewage therefore the impact toward the sea are marine pollution, hypoxia and water quality. The first cause that leads to sea pollution is oil spill.