Based on this observation, this thesis asks how do the EU and a candidate country negotiate LGBT-related normative tensions which have been created as part of the overarching political integration process? By taking into account the international symbolism of LGBT norms, it is suggested to move away from a classical approach to Europeanisation in which the impact of the EU on a third country is examined, towards a more dynamic conceptualisation of the EU enlargement process in which norms are inherently contested, and a resolution to normative struggles are required to advance political integration. Drawing on the critical scholarship on normative power Europe, this thesis rejects a uni-directional top-down understanding of EU enlargement in which the EU transplants its rules and norms to candidate countries, while proposing a complex multi-dimensional conceptualising in which different hegemonic struggles and normative tensions come together in a multi-layered normative struggle with its own tensions. How these tensions are negotiated is empirically studied in the context of the European integration process of Serbia —
The three archaologists and prehistorians are the American Homer L. At this stage, the obligatory term to designate this reconstruction was "theory". Since the beginning of the last decade, however, more and more scholars have worked on the same line, testing and applying the theory successfully on an increasing number of geographic areas, prehistoric periods and cultural topics, bringing new evidence for the foundation of what seems now more appropriate Europeanization theory thesis call a true "paradigm": In addition, the founders of the Palaeolithic Continuity Theory have themselves contributed to a more articulated definition of the new paradigm see Alinei c, a, b, c, b, c,b,b, c,b; Costa,b, The last and most authoritative version of this theory was the so called kurgan theory, elaborated by Marija Gimbutas, according to which the Proto-IE were the warrior pastoralists who built kurgan, Europeanization theory thesis.
Gimbutas, From the steppe area, the Proto-IE kurgan conquerors would have then first invaded Southern Eastern Europe, then, in the 3rd millennium, after having evolved into the so called Battle Axe people, would have somehow erased most pre-existing languages, and brought IE languages all over Europe.
By placing the arrival of the IEs in the 4th millennium, and the process of transformation from Proto-IE to separate language groups in the 3rd, the subsequent process, by which the separate language groups would evolve into the major attested languages, will inevitably take place in the II and I millennium that is in the Bronze and Iron Age.
Although most IE specialists are still reluctant to admit it, this chronology, as well as the scenario behind it, can now be considered as altogether obsolete.
The evidence collected by archaeology in the last thirty years, in fact, overwhelmingly prove the absence of any large scale invasion in Europe, and the uninterrupted continuity of most Copper and Bronze Age cultures of Europe from Neolithic, and of most Neolithic cultures from Mesolithic and final Paleolithic.
The mass invasion of IE warriors according to Marija Gimbutas Archaeologists usually do not address linguistic issues.
This is probably why, although firm conclusions about absence of invasions and cultural continuity already began to appear in the archaeological literature of the Seventies, historical linguists have continued to assume the traditional theory as an undisputed truth.
The IE puzzle, published inthe archaeologist Lord Colin Renfrew did not limit himself to collect the archaeological evidence now available to deliver the last fatal blow to the traditional theory, but presented a new theory of IE origins, called by its author the IE Neolithic Dispersal, which is based on the observation that the only moment in European prehistory which might coincide with a gigantic change such as the presumed indo-europeanization of Europe is the beginning of farming in the 7th millennium B.
Moreover, since farming originated in the Middle East, and archaeology does detect in southern Europe a modest migratory contribution from that direction, associated with the introduction of farming, Renfrew has concluded that these early farmers were the Proto-Indo-Europeans, responsible for the introduction of IE in southern and central Europe, and that the subsequent IE dispersal started from these two areas, along with the dispersal of farming techniques.
The philosophy behind this theory is thus that the Proto-Indo-Europeans, far from being warriors who invaded and conquered Europe by sheer military force, are instead the inventors of farming, who conquered Europe by cultural and intellectual superiority.
A philosophy which remains, in essence, eurocentric, even though the Proto-Indo-Europeans are now seen as the peaceful inventors of farming, instead of the warlike supermen of the traditional theory. The three earliest Neolithic cultures of Europe: Cand the LBK grey V millennium b.
Renfrew's book has unleashed a very lively international debate, which has been constantly growing, at the same time shifting its focus in response to growing objections.
His theory, which owing to its focus on the Neolithic discontinuity can be called the Neolithic Discontinuity Theory NDTis undoubtedly superior to the traditional Invasion Theory, as far as it does eliminate the myth of the PIE Blitzkrieg against the peaceful Old Europeans.
However, for the rest it creates more problems than it solves: ZvelebilZvelebil and Dolukhanov To explain the real linguistic situation, in fact, the NDT assumption must be simply reversed: However, that period is precisely the one in which archaeology detects no trace whatsoever of discontinuity: Obviously, the convergence between the continuity of Northern peoples, fishing cultures and technologies, and the Germanic or Uralic character of terminologies and place names point to continuity of language, just as it does in the Uralic area Alinei Alinei g, f, f, g, e, g, c, athere is just no way to reconcile the semantic history of innumerable IE words, and their chronological implications, with the NDT scenario.
Any thorough and unbiased analysis of the rich IE record points to a Paleolithic depth for the earliest layers of the PIE vocabulary, and to a very early, Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic linguistic differentiation of Proto-Indo-Europeans. This is the reason why the IE Neolithic terminology, as now admitted even by traditional scholars Villar81is neatly differentiated from group to group: Continuity as the basic working hypothesis on the origins of IE languages If the demonstration of continuity, as James Mallory has had to admit, is "the archaeologists' easiest pursuit" Mallory81then it follows: Consequently, also the record of their origins, change and development must be mapped onto a much longer chronology, instead of being compressed into a few millennia, as traditionally done, and as the NDT also obliges to do.
While traditional linguistics, by reifying language, had made change into a sort of biological, organic law of language development, the extraordinary tempo of it would fit the short chronologies of the recent invasion or of the earlier Neolithization, the new, much longer chronologies of language origins and language development impose a reversal of this conception: The linguistic illustration of this principle which fills many of the pages of Alineiand represents the first detailed linguistic analysis of the IE record in the light of the new chronologies and scenario imposed by scientific advance.
Here are some examples of this lexical periodization applied to IE: As such it ought to be placed in the depth of Paleolithic, and be seen as reflecting the awakening and developing of human conscience and cultural activities of an already separated and independent language phylum.
In fact, the differences in the lexicon of the grammatical structure shown by most language phyla should suffice to disqualify as meaningless any research aiming at reconstructing a universal monogenetic lexicon cp.
Conversely, the so called 'noa' names of the bear i. This is admitted even by a few traditionalists: While this finding can be easily explained within the PCP, it becomes a huge problem once Neolithic intrusive farmers have been assumed to be the Proto-IEs: These charts can be of significant help to historical linguists because: If, for example, the Neolithic Cardial Ware can be seen as corresponding to an already differentiated Italid group, each of its later sub-areas can be interpreted as representing a kind of 'dialect' differentiation from the same common 'language'.Overall, the thesis introduces the concept of ‘Tactical Europeanisation’ to highlight that the EU accession process is better thought of as a process of negotiated transformation in which EU policies and norms are (re)defined, negotiated and transformed with both sides making compromised to further the political integration.
Click for Sinhala Names → Botanical names Send questions & comments to the website email: [email protected] Sri Lanka is a rare treasure of flora and fauna - the local names of plants etc., are the links of the ecology to the land's socio-culture, and its people.
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Disaster Diplomacy Publications Index (Peer-reviewed academic publications which address predominantly disaster diplomacy.) Akcinaroglu et al. (), Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association and Akcinaroglu et al.
(), Political Research Quarterly.
Barston (), Modern Diplomacy. Brancati (), Journal of Conflict Resolution. At least the Basques are currently defined by their language so that there is some point studying their genetics.
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