Apportionment and Redistricting Sunday, November 15, Apportionment, and subsequently reapportionment and redistricting based on population, are significant processes that affect the United States Congress.
Gerrymandering in the United States is the practice of setting boundaries of electoral districts to strengthen particular political interests within legislative bodies.
Partisan gerrymandering to increase the power of a political party has been practiced since the founding of the country. In some instances, political parties collude to protect incumbents by engaging in bipartisan gerrymandering.
After racial minorities were enfranchised, some jurisdictions engaged in racial gerrymandering to weaken the political power of racial minority voters, while others engaged in racial gerrymandering to strengthen the power of minority voters.
The process of redistricting electoral boundaries takes place in each state about every ten years, following the decennial census, and has always been regarded as a political exercise, which in most states is controlled by state legislators and the governor.
When one party controls the state House, state Senate and the governor's office, they have, historically, done everything they can to advantage their side and disadvantage their political opponents.
Various legal and political remedies have been proposed to prevent gerrymandering, including court-ordered redistricting plans, redistricting commissionsand alternative voting systems that do not depend on drawing boundaries for single-member electoral districts.
Maryland's 3rd congressional district — since January 3, Techniques The New York Times has described the twin techniques of gerrymandering as "packing" and "cracking". Packing votes refers to concentrating opposition voters in one voting district, while cracking refers to diluting the voting power of opposition voters across many districts.
Types Different ways to draw district boundaries in a hypothetical state. Partisan History Printed in Marchthis political cartoon was drawn in reaction to the newly drawn Congressional electoral district of South Essex County drawn by the Massachusetts legislature to favor the Democratic-Republican Party candidates of Governor Elbridge Gerry over the Federalists.
The caricature satirizes the bizarre shape of a district in Essex County, Massachusetts as a dragon-like "monster. Partisan gerrymandering, which refers to redistricting that favors one political party, has a long tradition in the United States that precedes the election of the First U.
They drew the boundaries of Virginia's 5th congressional district in an unsuccessful attempt to keep James Madison out of the U.
When mapped, one of the contorted districts to the north of Boston was said to resemble the shape of a salamander. The redistricting was a notable success. In the election, both the Massachusetts House and governorship were won by Federalists by a comfortable margin costing Gerry his positionbut the senate remained firmly in Democratic-Republican hands.
Historians widely believe that the Federalist newspaper editors Nathan Haleand Benjamin and John Russell were the instigators, but the historical record does not have definitive evidence as to who created or uttered the word for the first time.
This cartoon was most likely drawn by Elkanah Tisdalean early 19th-century painter, designer, and engraver who was living in Boston at the time. Gerrymandering soon began to be used to describe not only the original Massachusetts example, but also other cases of district-shape manipulation for partisan gain in other states.
The first known use outside the immediate Boston area came in the Newburyport Herald of Massachusetts on 31 March, and the first known use outside Massachusetts came in the Concord Gazette of New Hampshire on 14 April What may be the first use of the term to describe the redistricting in another state Maryland occurred in the Federal Republican Georgetown, Washington, DC on 12 October There are at least 80 known citations of the word from March through December in American newspapers.Discover how gerrymandering makes the reapportionment and redistricting of congressional districts unfair with the wasted vote, excess vote, and stacked vote.
How States Create Congressional Districts Based on Census Data. Share following the decennial census, the state legislatures of the United States are told how many representatives. Gerrymandering: United States and Congressional Apportionment Essay vice versa the states do not want to lose seats in the House.
Congressional redistricting is the process of redrawing district boundaries when a state has more representatives than districts.
Gerrymandering: United States and Congressional Apportionment Essay vice versa the states do not want to lose seats in the House. Congressional redistricting is the process of redrawing district boundaries when a state has more representatives than districts.
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census. In the case of the United States of America, the House of Representatives was designed to provide an equal level of representation to voters across states, within the limitations of: every state having a minimum of 1 representative.
Although illegal, gerrymandering is the process of modifying congressional districts to benefit the party in power. A Little History The term gerrymandering is derived from Elbridge Gerry (), the governor of Massachusetts from to