Support Aeon Donate now A strange thing is happening in modern philosophy:
Under deontology, an act may be considered right even if the act produces a bad consequence,  if it follows the rule or moral law. According to the deontological view, people have a duty to act in a way that does those things that are inherently good as acts "truth-telling" for exampleor follow an objectively obligatory rule as in rule utilitarianism.
Kant then argues that those things that are usually thought to be good, such as intelligenceperseverance and pleasurefail to be either intrinsically good or good without qualification.
Pleasure, for example, appears to not be good without qualification, because when people take pleasure in watching someone suffer, they make the situation ethically worse. He concludes that there is only one thing that is truly good: Nothing in the world—indeed nothing even beyond the world—can possibly be conceived which could be called good without qualification except a good will.
Pragmatic ethics Associated with the pragmatistsCharles Sanders PeirceWilliam Jamesand especially John Deweypragmatic ethics holds that moral correctness evolves similarly to scientific knowledge: Thus, we should prioritize social reform over attempts to account for consequences, individual virtue or duty although these may be worthwhile attempts, if social reform is provided for.
Ethics of care Care ethics contrasts with more well-known ethical models, such as consequentialist theories e. These values include the importance of empathetic relationships and compassion. Care-focused feminism is a branch of feminist thought, informed primarily by ethics of care as developed by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings.
Noddings proposes that ethical caring has the potential to be a more concrete evaluative model of moral dilemma than an ethic of justice. Role ethics Role ethics is an ethical theory based on family roles.
Confucian roles are not rationaland originate through the xin, or human emotions. Anarchism Anarchist ethics is an ethical theory based on the studies of anarchist thinkers. The biggest contributor to the anarchist ethics is the Russian zoologist, geographer, economist, and political activist Peter Kropotkin.
Kropotkin argues that ethics itself is evolutionary, and is inherited as a sort of a social instinct through cultural history, and by so, he rejects any religious and transcendental explanation of morality.
The origin of ethical feeling in both animals and humans can be found, he claims, in the natural fact of "sociality" mutualistic symbiosiswhich humans can then combine with the instinct for justice i. This principle of treating others as one wishes to be treated oneself, what is it but the very same principle as equality, the fundamental principle of anarchism?
And how can any one manage to believe himself an anarchist unless he practices it? We do not wish to be ruled. And by this very fact, do we not declare that we ourselves wish to rule nobody? We do not wish to be deceived, we wish always to be told nothing but the truth. And by this very fact, do we not declare that we ourselves do not wish to deceive anybody, that we promise to always tell the truth, nothing but the truth, the whole truth?
We do not wish to have the fruits of our labor stolen from us. By what right indeed can we demand that we should be treated in one fashion, reserving it to ourselves to treat others in a fashion entirely different?
Our sense of equality revolts at such an idea. Postmodernism This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. July Learn how and when to remove this template message The 20th century saw a remarkable expansion and evolution of critical theory, following on earlier Marxist Theory efforts to locate individuals within larger structural frameworks of ideology and action.The following excerpts from our book Something Out of Nothing give an overview of our conclusions about nihilism.
Click/Tap here for links to all of our FREE books in Apple iBooks, Google Books, PDF, and ePub formats, and our Kindle version ($1). Essay about Philosophy: Living a Happy Life Words | 7 Pages. ponders on how to live a good life, many ideas come to mind.
Whether this may be wealth, family, or beauty, the early philosopher’s theories need to be taken into consideration. Why is there something rather than nothing?Might the world be an illusion or dream?What exists beyond the human senses?What happens after death?Does divine or supernatural agency exist?
Is the future already decided?; What is the meaning of life?What is right and wrong?Is the world good or bad?Are humans good or evil?What beings should have what rights?
Life is the hyphen between matter and spirit.
~Augustus William Hare and Julius Charles Hare, Guesses at Truth, by Two Brothers, My life has a superb cast but I can't figure out the plot. ~Ashleigh Brilliant.
WHAT, then, is the rightful limit to the sovereignty of the individual over himself?Where does the authority of society begin? How much of human life should be assigned to individuality, and how much to society? 1: Each will receive its proper share, if each has that which more particularly concerns it.
How to Live a Good Life Advice from Wise Persons. Principles, Rules, Essentials, Precepts, Recommendations, and Key Concepts for Right Living Advice Regarding a Worthy Lifestyle.