Full Document From the very beginning there was a philosophy undergirding the Montgomery boycott, the philosophy of nonviolent resistance. We had to use our mass meetings to explain nonviolence to a community of people who had never heard of the philosophy and in many instances were not sympathetic with it. We had meetings twice a week on Mondays and on Thursdays, and we had an institute on nonviolence and social change.
Nathan King, Park Ranger In early May,Birmingham, Alabama firefighters turned high pressure fire hoses on blacks; police used dogs, tear gas, and clubs to harass civilians; and thousands - including children - were arrested, filling the jails to capacity.
The images and film from the event shocked the nation. Why did such a scandalous event occur?
This episode of violence was not by chance. Instead, it was a highly successful non-violent protest: This was the genius of Martin Luther King, Jr. Following the end of the Civil War inthe 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America granted freedom, citizenship, and equal voting rights to African-Americans, millions of whom were slaves at the outset of the war.
However, after the Plessy V. Ferguson ruling inwhich established the "separate but equal" doctrine, discrimination against blacks and systematic disenfranchisement of black voters persisted in the South. Blacks and whites may have had equal opportunities to use public restrooms or eat in restaurants in the eyes of the law, but the quality, comfort, convenience, and dignity of the separate facilities were clearly unequal.
In Kansas, once the bulwark of abolitionism and liberalism, state law allowed for segregated schools in the larger cities. Inthe Supreme Court ruled on Brown V. Board of Education, determining that separate facilities are inherently unequal.
This ruling opened the door for desegregation efforts throughout the country, and other communities saw similar court battles. Although Martin Luther King, Jr. Board of Education as positive steps, he believed this method of attacking injustice through the courts was too specific and too gradual.
By energizing millions of supporters around the country, King aimed to do more than win a few court cases on specific issues; he aimed to awaken the American conscience. Martin Luther King at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, King's interest in non-violent protest as a means for social change sprang from a variety of influences.
Undoubtedly, King's primary influence was his Baptist upbringing and his study of the life of Jesus Christ, who said, "All they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Mohandas Gandhi proved a powerful influence because of his organization of wide-scale boycotts and non-violent resistance to achieve equality and end British colonial rule in India.
King visited India in seeking a greater understanding of Gandhi, who "was able to mobilize and galvanize more people in his lifetime than any other person in the history of the world," King noted.
Through theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, King realized that non-violent resistance could only succeed "if the groups against whom the resistance was taking place had some degree of moral conscience.
The strategy of non-violence allowed the demonstrators to retain a clear position as victims of amoral oppression and violence. Television, photographs, and print media would allow the world to witness the drama of oppression in the South. To achieve this end required an unarmed army willing to potentially absorb violence without resorting to violence themselves.
The people who joined King had tremendous courage. Men, women, and children joined in the protests knowing that they could and would be jailed, injured, or even killed. The people's courage to put themselves in harm's way in the historic moment of the Civil Rights Movement was fueled by generations of blacks that King said had been "seared in the flames of withering injustice," and bolstered by faith in Dr.
King's method of non-violence.
The Civil Rights Movement took place in many cities over a period of many years, and manifested itself in various forms. In Montgomery, AL, the law required blacks to sit at the rear of the bus where the engine made the cabin the hottest, to give up their seats for white passengers, and to stand instead of using empty seats reserved for white passengers.
After years of this indignity, Ms. Rosa Parks's refusal to give up her seat to a white man on December 1, sparked interest in staging a wide-scale protest.
With others, King organized a boycott of the city buses that, after months of persistence, resulted in a court ruling that desegregated the buses. In cities across the South, activists staged lunch counter sit-ins to protest segregated dining facilities, arriving en masse and sitting at lunch counters reserved for whites, refusing to leave until police hauled them away.
Months after the march in Washington, a march for voting rights from Selma to Montgomery, AL sparked intense, violent backlash in which three marchers were murdered, dozens beaten, and hundreds jailed. Through these demonstrations and media coverage, the injustice of segregation became apparent to all the world.
As a leader of the movement, King knew he was exposing himself and his family to violent backlash. King was routinely harassed and repeatedly arrested. On January 30,King's home was bombed. King was stabbed insaved only by open-chest surgery.MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR., “THE POWER OF NONVIOLENCE” () The Greek language uses three words for love.
It talks about attheheels.com is a sort of aesthetic love. It has come to us to be a sort of romantic love and it stands with all of its beauty. The Power of Nonviolence, the first anthology of alternatives to war with a historical perspective, with an introduction by Howard Zinn about September 11 and the U.S.
response to the terrorist attacks, presents the most salient and persuasive arguments for peace in the last 2, years of human history/5(9).
The power of nonviolence is real, and has proven to be far more effective as a method of social change than the resort to violence and destruction. The effectiveness of social protest depends on. The power of nonviolence Nonviolent politics have unique power to change the world, but they require strategic suffering and ascetic self-mastery.
Cultures of Peace SeriesUNESCO PUBLISHING Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr The power of nonviolent action Mary King. Caodaism (Vietnamese: Đạo Cao Đài, Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic syncretic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in The full name of the religion is Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ (The Great Faith [for the] Third Universal Redemption)..
Cao Đài (Vietnamese: [kāːw ɗâːj] (), literally the "Highest Lord" or "Highest Power.